Examples of downward causation?

[Note: updated 04/08/07 with examples from Carl Craver’s paper.]I just culled together a bunch of putative examples of downward causation, some from advocates, some from detractors. Particularly interesting and promising is the article by Robert Bishop, Downward causation in fluid convection, and Bechtel/Craver’s article  Top-down causation without top-down causes, for …

The Church-Turing Fallacy

The Church-Turing fallacy is the fallacy of supposing that the Church-Turing thesis (CT) or some other idea of Church and Turing entails that the mind can be explained computationally (i.e., computationalism).  (The term ‘Church-Turing fallacy’ is due to Jack Copeland.)IMHO, CT is one of the technical ideas most heavily abused by philosophers of mind.CT …

Philosophy by Counterexamples

In comments to a recent post, Ken Aizawa raised the following question:      How is the development of a counterexample [to a philosophical theory] different than the       development of a falsifiable/falsified prediction of a scientific theory? I think this is a fascinating question that gets at the heart of contemporaty philosophical methodology, and I’d be curious to …